Agreement Establishing Asian Development Bank
In the early years of 2000, funding increased significantly. While the institute has had such operations since the 1980s (under pressure from the Reagan administration), early attempts at low credit volumes, large losses and financial scandals related to a company called AFIC have been very futile. However, starting in 2002, the AfDB began a dramatic expansion of private sector lending as part of a new team. Over the next six years, the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) increased the AfDB`s new funding and revenues by 41 times in 2001. This culminated in the formal recognition of the Board of Directors when these benefits were formally adopted in March 2008, when the Board of Directors adopted the Long-Term Strategic Framework (LTSF). The document officially stated that support for private sector development was the AfDB`s top priority and that it should account for 50% of the Bank`s lending by 2020. The ADB offers „hard“ loans on commercial terms mainly to middle-income countries in Asia and „soft“ loans to poorer countries in the region, with lower interest rates. On the basis of a new policy, both types of loans will be obtained from January 2017 from the Bank`s regular capital resources (OCRs), which acts as a general operating fund.  As a major player in the concept, Japan hoped that the ADB offices would be in Tokyo.
But eight other cities had also expressed interest: Bangkok, Colombo, Kabul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Phnom Penh, Singapore and Tehran. The decision was taken by the 18 potential regional members of the new Bank at a ministerial conference in Manila in November/December 1965. In the first round, on November 30, Tokyo failed to win a majority, so a second round was held the next day at 12 o`clock. Although Japan was in the lead, it has still not been successful, so a final vote took place after lunch. In the third poll, Tokyo won eight votes against, with one abstention. Manila has therefore been declared the host of the new development bank. The Japanese were confused and deeply disappointed. Watanabe later wrote to the ADB: „I felt that the child I had so carefully raised had been taken to a faraway land.“ (Asian Development Bank publication, „Towards a New Asia,“ 1977, 16) In 1956, Japanese Finance Minister Hisato Ichimada had already proposed to U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that development projects in Southeast Asia could be supported by a new financial institution for the region. A year later, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi announced that Japan will support the creation of a regional development fund with funds mainly from Japan and other industrialized countries. But the United States did not warm up for the plan and the concept was frozen.
See full account in Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of the Asian Development Bank, July 2017. The ADB has been closely modelled at the World Bank and has a similar weighted voting system in which votes are distributed in proportion to membership subscriptions. ADB publishes an annual report summarizing its operations, budget and other documents that will be submitted to the public for review.  The ADB-Japan Scholarship Program (ADB-JSP) welcomes approximately 300 students each year to academic institutions in 10 countries in the region. At the end of their studies, scientists should contribute to the economic and social development of their country of origin.  ADB is an official observer of the United Nations.  There has been criticism that the AfDB`s major projects cause social and environmental damage due to a lack of oversight.